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The basic performance of the connector can be divided into three parts, namely mechanical performance, electrical performance and environmental adaptability.
There are two requirements for mechanical properties:
One is about the insertion force between the two contacts of the connector. We hope that the force of its insertion is relatively small, and the force of separation should be appropriate;
the other is about the mechanical life of the connector, that is, the durability of the connector.
The electrical performance consists of four parts.
One is the contact resistance of the connector. The contact resistance should be small, and it is better to be able to reach several tens of milliohms;
The other is the insulation resistance. The third is the electrical strength, which refers to the rated test voltage capability between the connectors, between the contacts, or between the contacts and the shell;
The fourth is the general electromagnetic performance, including the resistance to electromagnetic interference. Attenuation caused by, and the ability to shield against electromagnetic interference. The environmental capability includes three aspects:
One is temperature resistance. According to the environment in which the connector is used, the required range of temperature resistance is actually different;
The second is moisture resistance, which needs to reach 90% or higher;
The third is salt spray resistance, Salt spray can degrade the connector or corrode the surface;
fourth, the connector must be resistant to shock and vibration, because in some special environments, such as aerospace, railway transportation, road transportation, etc., the impact and vibration of electrical appliances is strong.
The development of connectors has the following characteristics:
1. To develop in the direction of miniaturization, high density and high speed transmission;
2. To develop in the direction of high performance and high frequency technology;
3. The market for connectors with high voltage and high current is also very large;
4. Connectors are also developing in the direction of anti-interference technology, modular technology and lead-free technology.
Under the circumstance that the speed of the traditional parallel synchronous digital signal will reach the limit, the high-speed serial mode is a good solution. This makes Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) the dominant next-generation high-speed signaling level standard.
The selection of high-speed connectors has also become the main problem to be solved for high-speed signal interconnection. Several key technologies used in the development of high-speed connectors include:
1. Differential signal, noise-free signal and ground plane technology used to reduce crosstalk;
2. In order to adjust the lead wire of the connector, the delay difference caused by the physical distance between the input and output of the connector can be changed;
3. In order to obtain the maximum transmission efficiency, the characteristic impedance value of the connector should match the characteristic impedance of the transmission circuit.