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Application of Connector in Communication System

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The Creative Process of Richard Vora

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1.Basic concepts of connectors

The basic performance of the connector can be divided into three parts, namely mechanical performance, electrical performance and environmental adaptability.

There are two requirements for mechanical properties:

One is about the insertion force between the two contacts of the connector. We hope that the force of its insertion is relatively small, and the force of separation should be appropriate;

the other is about the mechanical life of the connector, that is, the durability of the connector.

The electrical performance consists of four parts.

One is the contact resistance of the connector. The contact resistance should be small, and it is better to be able to reach several tens of milliohms;

The other is the insulation resistance. The third is the electrical strength, which refers to the rated test voltage capability between the connectors, between the contacts, or between the contacts and the shell;

The fourth is the general electromagnetic performance, including the resistance to electromagnetic interference. Attenuation caused by, and the ability to shield against electromagnetic interference. The environmental capability includes three aspects:

One is temperature resistance. According to the environment in which the connector is used, the required range of temperature resistance is actually different;

The second is moisture resistance, which needs to reach 90% or higher;

The third is salt spray resistance, Salt spray can degrade the connector or corrode the surface;

fourth, the connector must be resistant to shock and vibration, because in some special environments, such as aerospace, railway transportation, road transportation, etc., the impact and vibration of electrical appliances is strong.

The development of connectors has the following characteristics:

1. To develop in the direction of miniaturization, high density and high speed transmission;

2. To develop in the direction of high performance and high frequency technology;

3. The market for connectors with high voltage and high current is also very large;

4. Connectors are also developing in the direction of anti-interference technology, modular technology and lead-free technology.

Under the circumstance that the speed of the traditional parallel synchronous digital signal will reach the limit, the high-speed serial mode is a good solution. This makes Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) the dominant next-generation high-speed signaling level standard.

The selection of high-speed connectors has also become the main problem to be solved for high-speed signal interconnection. Several key technologies used in the development of high-speed connectors include:

1. Differential signal, noise-free signal and ground plane technology used to reduce crosstalk;

2. In order to adjust the lead wire of the connector, the delay difference caused by the physical distance between the input and output of the connector can be changed;

3. In order to obtain the maximum transmission efficiency, the characteristic impedance value of the connector should match the characteristic impedance of the transmission circuit.

2.Application of connectors in wired systems

Any network requires connectivity in order to combine individual devices into a networked system.

In today’s networks, interconnection devices (“connectors”) play an important role: first, they can electrically connect individual devices to form larger network systems; Devices can be connected to work together to form a network in a neighborhood to meet the needs of a business or community. Therefore, in the wired communication system, the function of the connector mainly has three aspects:

firstly, it can realize the electrical connection between the circuit board and the single electrical component in a single device; secondly, if the standardized interconnection is adopted, it can make different companies Manufactured devices to work together by connecting to each other to form a network in a neighborhood to meet the needs of a business or community; third, to be designed to function reliably to withstand a known work environment and equipment eye period work intensity.

For the requirements of wired communication systems for connectors, the following aspects should be considered in the design:

· Gold-plated contact interface for higher wear resistance and good electrical properties;

· Redundant contact interface to ensure high reliability;

· Optional airtight connection or PCB welding;

· The external features of the housing should facilitate alignment and guidance during insertion;

· Use different pin heights to ensure the sequence of signal and ground connections;

· The high-power power supply uses special terminals, which are different from the signal contact terminals;

· To ensure EMI characteristics and chassis grounding.

Switched coaxial connectors for mobile phones are mainly used to provide signal switching between the antenna in the phone and the antenna outside the car. This switch-style connector is available in three surface mount heights, 3.5mm, 4.5mm and 6.0mm. The surface mount switch connector is directly connected to the mobile phone antenna. Excellent signal transmission due to the short distance between the power element and the antenna or switch, there are no cables inside

3.Signal Integrity Design of Connectors

When designing a connector for signal integrity, it is necessary to consider:

1. The continuity with the impedance of the entire interconnected transmission line;

2. The crosstalk between the pins of the connector;

3. There are timing requirements, and the delay on the connector should be considered.

The analysis method of the connector is basically the same as the general signal analysis method. The part is to use the simulation software to simulate and analyze the results to draw conclusions.

The model analysis of the connector is the same as the model analysis of the circuit, but it is important to pay attention to the accurate modeling and simulation of the connector and via effect for predicting the signal quality.

There are five cases of model analysis:

· Multi-line model (MLM): suitable for multi-pin connectors, including contact elements, contact-to-contact coupling, contact-to-shield coupling, pad-to-pad coupling, etc. In addition to the parameters simulated by SLM, it can also be used to simulate crosstalk and ground bounce.

· Single Wire Model (SLM): Applies to a single wire in a connector, such as a high-speed signal transmission line, and can be used to simulate reflections, delay and skew, attenuation, and signal transmission quality.

· S-parameter model: Mainly used in the frequency domain, it can simulate throughput and crosstalk, and through time domain transformation, it can generate impedance, crosstalk, transmission delay, and eye diagrams.

· IBIS model: It is a fast and accurate modeling method for I/0 BUFFER based on V/I curve, which supports all types of connectors and a variety of different connector modeling, such as differential and unbalanced signaling, SLM ( no coupling), MLM (coupled), model cascade, board-to-board, board-to-cable, etc.

· SPICE model: is the most common circuit-level simulation program. The elements in the circuit under analysis can include resistors, capacitors, inductors, mutual inductances, independent voltage sources, independent current sources, various linear controlled sources, transmission lines, and active semiconductors. Device signal integrity is one of the most important issues running through the design of high-speed digital circuits.

Here are a few suggestions:

A Physical isolation of sensitive components from noise devices;

B impedance control, reflection and signal termination matching;

C with continuous power and ground plane layers; The right angle should be avoided as far as possible in the wiring;

D the wiring length of the differential pair should be equal to ensure a good rejection ratio at the receiving end.

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